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What is LNG?

Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been cooled to a temperature of approximately -162°C  (-260 °F) at atmospheric pressure and it condenses to a liquid. Liquefaction reduces the volume by approximately 600 times. This volumetric reduction enables long distance transportation of LNG via carrier ships to be viable. LNG weighs less than one-half that of water. LNG is odorless, colorless, non-corrosive, and non-toxic. When vaporized it burns only in concentrations of 5% to 15% when mixed with air. Neither LNG, nor its vapor, can explode in an unconfined environment.

   

What is CNG?

Compressed natural gas (CNG) is natural gas pressurized and stored in welding bottle-like tanks at pressures up to 3,600 psig. Typically, it is same composition of the local "pipeline" gas, with some of the water removed. CNG and LNG are both delivered to the engines as low-pressure vapor (ounces to 300 psig). CNG is often misrepresented as the only form natural gas can be used as vehicle fuel. LNG can be used to make CNG. This process requires much less capital-intensive equipment and about 15% of the operating and maintenance costs.

   

NATURAL GAS VOLUME

LNG Tank has 9 times the natural gas volume of CNG tank stored at 200 bar. That means you needs much less LNG tank space and tank weight for a vehicle to travel the same distance as a CNG vehicle, or the LNG vehicle will have greater range than a CNG vehicle with the same size fuel storage.







NATURAL GAS VOLUME

LNG Tank has 9 times the natural gas volume of CNG tank stored at 200 bar. That means you needs much less LNG tank space and tank weight for a vehicle to travel the same distance as a CNG vehicle, or the LNG vehicle will have greater range than a CNG vehicle with the same size fuel storage.

LNG HISTORY

19th century

Michael Faraday and Karl Von Linde first liquefied natural gas.

1912

The first LNG plant was built in West Virginia

1941

The first commercial liquefaction plant was built in Cleveland, Ohio

1959

The world’s first LNG tanker carried LNG cargo from Lake Charles, Louisiana to Canvey Island, United Kingdom.

1968

Boston Gas Co. imports first LNG into United States.

1969

Alaska’s kenai plant began LNG deliveries to Japan’s Tokyo Gas and Tokyo Electric Power Company

1971

Distrigas Corporation opens receiving and regasification terminal in Everett, MA.

1972

Brunai became Asia’s first LNG producer.

1978

United States imported LNG for baseload supply for first time. Cove Point, MD, and Elba Island, GA, terminal open.

1979

United States imported LNG peak at 253 billion cubic feet.

1985

Natural gas prices slump drastically. Distrigas stops buying Algerian LNG because the company is unable to market it.

1988

Distrigas resumes purchasing Algerian LNG. Lake Charles terminal reopens and also resumes LNG imports from Algeria.



LNG PROPERTIES

  • Extremely low temperature – LNG is very cold (-162°C), but vacuum-jacketed tank, piping and dispensing components keep the cold inside and not outside the tank, pipes and dispensers.
  • Float on water – LNG weight is about 0.4238 kg/liter, slightly less than half of water.
  • Lighter than air – Unlike diesel or propane, fumes don’t linger at ground level where they might contaminate ground water. Instead, they quickly vaporize when exposed to atmospheric pressures and temperatures. LNG weight is about 50% less than air.
  • 98% Methane – Most natural gas impurities are filtered out in the liquefaction process. LNG has highest performance natural gas for vehicle engines.
  • Low pressure – LNG is stored at pressure about 3.5 bar to 10.3 bar compare to the pressure about 200 bar to 250 bar for CNG. Reduced pressure lessens the chance for a leak.
  • High ignition Temperature – 538°C versus 260°C for diesel.
  • Odorless and colorless
  • Non-toxic and non-corrosive
  • Not explosive and not burn - In its liquid state, LNG is not explosive and can not burn. For LNG to burn, it must first vaporize, then mix with air in the proper proportions (the flammable range is 5% to 15%), and then be ignited
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